PDF India


Piracy — physical, Internet and over mobile devices — continues at high levels in
India. While there was some enforcement progress in 2009, enforcement is still not effective in deterring piracy.
Police should increase the number of suo moto (e.g., ex officio) raids; and reforms at every level are needed to
reduce huge court backlogs, eliminate procedural hurdles, and address long court delays that result in an insufficient
number of criminal convictions and damage awards in civil cases. Anti-piracy enforcement continues to be
fragmented and the enforcement agencies lack training to effectively undertake Internet piracy cases.
This year a copyright amendment bill is expected to be introduced — after years of delay — into the
Parliament. Until the bill is actually introduced, however, we will not know whether it has been modified from prior
drafts to fully and properly implement the WIPO Internet treaties. Prior drafts were woefully inadequate and India
desperately needs an effective regime to counter growing Internet piracy. Both optical disc and anti-camcording
legislation are needed. With strong copyright industries and fast growing Internet and broadband penetration, India
should take action immediately to redress these deficiencies before they become more serious problems.

Pages : 13


Asian Development Bank &

Mainly as a result of the economic reforms initiated in 1991, India’s long-term trend rate of
growth increased from 3.6% during the 1950s–1970s, to 5.2% in the 1980s, 6.1% in the 1990s,
and to more than 9% during fiscal year (FY)2005–FY2007. Like other emerging economies,
India was affected by the turmoil and uncertainty gripping global financial markets and the world
economy since the second half of 2008. Growth rates declined to 6.7% in FY2008, as compared
to 9.2% in FY2007 and 9.7% in FY2006. The Government of India took several prompt monetary
and fiscal measures to enhance demand, boost credit flows, and lower interest rates to counter
the slowdown. Some early indicators suggest that the government’s stimulus package has been
effective in reviving growth.

Pages : 6


India:The Impact of Mobile Phones

In this report, we have returned to the important subject of the economic impact of
telecommunications on emerging markets by undertaking research looking in detail at
India. As in the other reports in the Vodafone Public Policy Series, we have asked leading
researchers to conduct the analysis. We are delighted that a team led by Dr. Rajat Kathuria
of the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER), one of
India’s foremost independent research institutes, was able to direct and conduct this work.
The opinions expressed in this document are not ours but those of independent experts
whose views we respect even if we do not always agree with them. We believe that they
have important things to say that should be of interest to anyone concerned with good
public policy, and the policies towards economic and social development of India and
other emerging markets.

Pages : 68


The progress of school education in India

This paper provides an overview of school education in India. Firstly, it places India?s educational
achievements in international perspective, especially against countries with which it is now
increasingly compared such as BRIC economies in general and China in particular. India does well
relative to Pakistan and Bangladesh but lags seriously behind China and the other BRIC countries,
especially in secondary school participation and youth literacy rates. Secondly, the paper examines
schooling access in terms of enrolment and school attendance rates, and schooling quality in terms of
literacy rates, learning achievement levels, school resources and teacher inputs. The substantial silver
lining in the cloud of Indian education is that its primary enrolment rates are now close to universal.
However, despite progress, attendance and retention rates are not close to universal, secondary
enrolment rates are low, learning achievement levels are seriously low and teacher absenteeism is
high, signalling poor quality of schooling. Thirdly, the paper examines the role of private schooling
in India. While more modest in rural areas, the recent growth of private schooling in urban areas has
been nothing short of massive, raising questions about growing inequality in educational opportunity.
Evidence suggests that private schools are both more effective in imparting learning and do so at a
fraction of the unit cost of government schools, their cost advantage being because they can pay
market wages while government school teachers? bureaucratically set minimum wages have large
rents in them which teacher unions have fought hard to secure. Lastly, the paper discusses some
major public education initiatives such as Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, mid-day meal and para-teacher
schemes. The impacts of these massive interventions (and their sub-components) on children?s
schooling outcomes need to be rigorously evaluated to learn about the cost-effectiveness of alternative
interventions for better future policy making. However, the existence of some of these initiatives and
the introduction of the 2% education cess to fund them suggests increased public commitment to
school education and, together with increased NGO education activity, gives grounds for optimism
about the future, even though many challenges remain.

Pages : 38


Healthcare in India

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in the collection and processing of the information in this report. However,
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or for any consequential, special, incidental or punitive damages to any
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possibility of such damages.

Pages :26



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should conduct its own investigation and analysis of, and form its own conclusions with respect to, the
information contained in the report. No recipient is entitled to rely on the work of the Everest Group
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the express prior written consent of NASSCOM.

Pages : 14



India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of
its unique geo-climatic conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and
landslides have been a recurrent phenomena. About 60% of the landmass is
prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million hectares is prone to
floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is
susceptible to drought. In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344
people lost their lives and about 30 million people were affected by disasters
every year. The loss in terms of private, community and public assets has been

Pages : 98


Small and Medium Forest Enterprise in India

This report is part of a cross-country research initiative that focuses on small and medium
forestry enterprises and their potential contribution to poverty reduction and sustainability. It is
based on a short scoping study, designed to gather background information, present key issues,
and identify where further research will be most relevant and useful.
The research for this report was carried out by Winrock International India, New Delhi (WII), in
collaboration with the International Institute for Environment and Development, London (IIED),
who also coordinated the overall initiative. It builds on the findings of earlier research carried out
under a WII/IIED collaboration, on ‘Instruments for Sustainable Private Sector Forestry’. The
India country study (“The new foresters: the role of private enterprise in the Indian forestry
sector”, by Saigal, Arora, and Rizvi, 2002) under this international initiative identified that whilst
current policy sometimes restricts the activities of large-scale enterprises in the forestry sector
(for example disallowing the development of large plantations on forestry land; opening up to
cheap imports which render Indian products uncompetitive), there has been a significant
expansion in activities in the small scale sector in recent years. Such activities include the
collection, processing and marketing of non-timber forest products (including medicinal herbs),
the production and marketing of timber by farmers, and the joint management and beginnings of
commercial exploitation of forests by joint forest management communities. These and many
other activities show that India has a diverse, active and growing small-scale sector, which also
has the potential to contribute to livelihoods and sustainability.

Pages :67



India has made great
strides in increasing
literacy and school
enrollment over the past
decade, resulting in
significant poverty
reduction. With a GDP
(PPP) of $2,818, 867 in
2007, India now has the
world’s fourth largest
economy (IMF, 2007). However, if
India is going to compete as a
knowledge economy, reforms are
required for the education sector,
including revising regulatory
frameworks, increasing transparency,
facilitating foreign investment and
improving quality and access to
education at all levels.

Pages : 11



Long considered a “strategic backwater” from Washington’s perspective, South Asia has emerged
in the 21st century as increasingly vital to core U.S. foreign policy interests. India, the region’s
dominant actor with more than one billion citizens, is often characterized as a nascent major
power and “natural partner” of the United States, one that many analysts view as a potential
counterweight to China’s growing clout. Washington and New Delhi have since 2004 been
pursuing a “strategic partnership” based on shared values such as democracy, pluralism, and rule
of law. Numerous economic, security, and global initiatives, including plans for civilian nuclear
cooperation, are underway. This latter initiative, launched by President Bush in 2005 and
finalized by the 110th Congress in 2008 (P.L. 110-369), reverses three decades of U.S.
nonproliferation policy. Also in 2005, the United States and India signed a ten-year defense
framework agreement that calls for expanding bilateral security cooperation. Since 2002, the two
countries have engaged in numerous and unprecedented combined military exercises. Major U.S.
arms sales to India are underway; more are anticipated. The influence of a growing and relatively
wealthy Indian-American community of more than two million is reflected in Congress’s largest
country-specific caucus.

Pages : 83


The Future POPULATION of India

India’s population passed the one billion mark in 2000 and, this year, celebrated its
60th year as an independent country. Its population is likely to pass China’s as the
world’s largest within 20 years. All of this leads quite naturally to the question: how
large might the population of the world’s largest democracy become?
This is the question that the Population Foundation of India and its partner, the
Population Reference Bureau, have addressed in an exercise to project India’s
population for the long term. While no one can predict future events with certitude,
it is possible to examine the consequences of possible future trends in
demographic rates, with the future birth rate a significant factor…

Pages : 20



On the eve of the Industrial Revolution (around 1770), India was the second-largest economy
in the world, contributing more than 20% of total world output. By the 1970s, after two
centuries of relative economic stagnation, that share had fallen to 3%?the lowest in its
recorded history. From a long-term perspective, the post-industrial economic decline of India
(and China) is a historical aberration, driven to some extent by a lack of openness. After
independence in 1947, India followed inward-looking and state-interventionist policies that
shackled the economy through regulations, and severely restricted trade and economic
freedom. The result was decades of low growth, pejoratively termed the ?Hindu rate of
growth?. Reforms beginning in 1991 gradually removed obstacles to economic freedom, and
India has begun to play catch-up, steadily re-integrating into the global economy.
Since 2003, India has been one of the fastest-growing major economies, leading to rapid
increases in per capita income, demand and integration with the global economy. Will India be
able to sustain, or even increase, its high growth rates over the medium term? If so, what will
be the implications of Indias re-integration into the global economy for world demand growth?

Pages : 17


Doing Business 2010 India

Doing Business 2010: Reforming Through Difficult Times is the seventh in a series of annual reports investigating
regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators
on business regulations and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 183 economies, from
Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, over time.
A set of regulations affecting 10 stages of a business’s life are measured: starting a business, dealing with construction
permits, employing workers, registering property, getting credit, protecting investors, paying taxes, trading across
borders, enforcing contracts and closing a business. Data in Doing Business 2010: Reforming Through Difficult Times
are current as of June 1, 2009*. The indicators are used to analyze economic outcomes and identify what reforms have
worked, where, and why…

Pages : 90


The Rise of India: Problems and Opportunities

In December 2006, the U.S. Congress passed a bill on sharing civilian nuclear
technology with India. This marks the beginning of a cooperation that was
initiated in 2004. It was manifested through a bilateral agreement on military
cooperation signed in 2005 and through a joint statement by the U.S.
President and the Indian Prime Minister on nuclear cooperation. The
suggested collaboration is merely a symbol of a much wider cooperation that
raises questions about India’s ambitions towards becoming a great power, its
relations with the U.S., China and Pakistan as well as its policy toward its
own minority peoples and lower castes.
This paper tries to examine the factors in India’s domestic, foreign and
security policies, which are important for its ambitions as an emerging great
power, but with a scope limited to its potential alliance options. The
initiation of U.S.-Indian contacts in various fields of strategic importance
forms the background to the current study and the focus is directed to five
questions. What factors have led India to harbor great power ambitions?
How powerful are these ambitions? What factors complicate India’s
ambitions? What are India’s weak points? What are the options in forming
alliances and what problems will an alliance partner have to face?

Pages : 137


Trade and Investment Opportunities with India

How the UK reacts to globalisation is one of the most important issues facing the UK
Government. To know how to react, it is necessary first to understand the real nature of the
challenge. The decision to undertake an inquiry into India was born of an often-expressed
concern that the UK is making less of its opportunities than our global competitors.
Representatives of both the Indian Government and the UK and Indian private sectors
expressed their concerns that our unique relationship with India should be generating a
much higher level of trade and investment than was actually the case. The Committee
undertook this detailed examination of trade and investment relations with India to learn
about the specific issues in this vital trading relationship and to inform the Committee’s
wider work on the actions the UK must take to remain competitive.

Pages : 70



India, with a population of around one billion persons is the second most
populous country in the world after China. Located in South Asia, the country is
spread over an area of 3.2 million square km, which makes it the seventh largest
country in terms of area. The country was under British Rule for about one hundred
and fifty years before 1947, when it became independent. In the year 1950, it
declared itself a republic.
India is a federal system of government with 25 states and 7 union territories. It
has a population of about 1 billion out of which 26 percent live in urban areas. The
per capita GDP of India is about US$ 370. Agriculture accounts for 31.1 percent of
the economy, while industry and servic es account for 23 percent and 45.9 percent
respectively, of the economy. The sex ratio of the population is 48.1 percent and is
rather skewed in favour of males. The most favourable sex ratio in the country is in
the state of Kerala at 50.9 percent, while the Union Territory of Lakshadweep has the
worst sex ratio at 40 percent. Life expectancy at birth for women is 58.7 years and
for men it is 57.7 percent. The overall literacy rate is 52.2 percent. Literacy among
men is 64.1 percent and among women it is 39.3 percent. Women make up about 28
percent of the labour force…

Pages : 29


India:Current National Security Situation

Since independence in 1947, India’s economy and population have been growing steadily.
Now a country with over one billion people, India’s first priority is socio-economic
development. At the same time, India believes that an assured level of regional stability is
necessary for this development. To this end, India has traditionally pursued a broad policy
of defensive defense. However military developments, and growing hostilities with
Pakistan, have caused her to shift to a strategy of war prevention.

Pages : 22


Decentralisation in India: Poverty, Politics and Panchayati Raj

Formerly a Research Officer with ODI, Craig Johnson is an Assistant Professor in the Department
of Political Science at the University of Guelph, Canada. This paper is a Background Report for the
Livelihood Options Study, which can be accessed on www.livelihoodoptions.info. Correspondence
can be sent to cjohns06@uoguelph.ca. The author would like to acknowledge the insightful
comments provided by Amitabh Behar and Rene Veron. Neither, of course, should be implicated in
the text that follows: the views expressed in this paper are those of the author alone.

Pages :66


India’s Trade Policy Choices

This report is the product of a team organized by the Trade, Equity, and
Development Program of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
The team was led by Sandra Polaski of the Carnegie Endowment and
included Sherman Robinson, Manoj Panda, Scott McDonald, and A. Ganesh-
Kumar. (Information about the authors can be found on page 101.) Research
assistance was provided by Geoffrey Gertz and William Talbott. The Indira
Gandhi Institute of Development Research (IGIDR), Mumbai, and the
Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex, Brighton,
were institutional partners.

Pages : 114



This study is an itinerant exploration into dimensions, and perceptions of human rights in times of ordinary
governance, primarily elicited from an undefined, but widely inclusive, human rights community. This exercise
was preceded by about half a decade of growing instability about various meanings attributable to human rights
that have been emerging in our midst.
Discussions with D.J.Ravindran and Muralidhar helped to set the agenda for a preliminary mapping of human
rights issues in India. We also thought that there should be a shy at extracting a definition of human rights, but that
was dropped as being perhaps not quite relevant in a ‘preliminary’ work. Ravi also found a way for me to shrink
the period of work from a projected three years to six-nine months…

Pages : 55


India-China Relations

Existing in close proximity for thousands of
years, the ancient civilizations of China and
India had surprisingly little political interaction
for most of that time. The twentieth century
saw tensions between the two increase
over disputed borders and geopolitical competition
for power, influence, resources, and
markets. How the relationship will develop
and play out is an important question in the
twenty-first century.

Pages : 8


Nutrition in India: Facts and Interpretations

In spite of India’s rapid economic growth, there has been a sustained decline in per capita
calorie consumption during the last twenty-five years. While the decline has been largest
among better-off households, it has taken place throughout the range of household per
capita total expenditure. For both adults and children, anthropometric indicators of
nutritional status in India are among the worst in the world. While these indicators have
shown improvement over time, the rate of progress is slow relative to what might be
expected based on international and historical experience. This paper presents the basic
facts about growth, poverty and nutrition in India, it points to a number of puzzles, and it
sketches a preliminary story that is consistent with the evidence. The reduction in calorie
consumption cannot be attributed to declining real incomes, nor to any increase in the
relative price of food. Our leading hypothesis, on which much work remains to be done,
is that, as real incomes and wages have increased, leading to some nutritional improvement,
there has been an offsetting reduction in calorie requirements due to declining
levels of physical activity and possibly also to various improvements in the health
environment. If correct, this analysis does not imply that Indians are currently adequately
nourished; nothing could be further from the truth. Calorie intake has serious limitations
as a nutritional intake; while calories are extremely important, there are too many sources
of variation in calorie requirements for standard, invariant, calorie-norms to be usefully
applied to large sections of the population. We conclude with a plea for better, and more
regular, monitoring of nutritional status in India.

Pages : 80


INDIA Country Strategy Paper

India has witnessed rapid economic growth in the past decade, and it has now become one of the
emerging economies in Asia. As India continues on this path, as most observers expect it to, the
need for development assistance will gradually decrease, and future EC Country Strategy
Papers (CSP) should increasingly focus on other areas of co-operation. This CSP (2007-2013)
should therefore be regarded as transitional, showing a progressive shift from development
assistance towards support to pro-poor sector reform policies and other areas of mutual interest,
including economic co-operation.
India is occupying two worlds simultaneously. In the first, rapid economic growth and social
changes occur. In the other, a percentage of the population appears to be left behind due to lack
of good social services, low employment opportunities and few prospects. Bridging this gap will
be a major challenge. With more than a billion people and one third of the world’s poor, India
needs rapid growth, together with strong employment creation and extended social protection, to
reduce poverty and sustain income increases for its very young population. Structural reforms
and social cohesion are needed to accelerate growth and substantially reduce poverty. Promoting
full and productive employment is also a central objective in this respect. A major effort is still
necessary if India is to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

Pages : 55


National Youth
Shadow Report

On 25–27 June 2001, heads of State and government representatives met for the United Nations
General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), which resulted in the issuance of
the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS (DoC). The DoC outlines what governments have
pledged to achieve– through international, regional and country-level partnerships and with the
support of civil society– to halt and begin to reverse the spread of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The
DoC is not a legally binding document; however, it is a clear statement by governments
concerning what should be done to fight the spread of HIV/AIDS and what countries have
committed to doing, with specific time-bound targets.

Pages :24


Banking Reform in India

Measured by share of deposits, 83 percent of the banking business in India is in the hands of
state or nationalized banks, which are banks that are owned by the government, in some, increasingly
less clear-cut way. Moreover, even the non-nationalized banks are subject to extensive
regulations on who they can lend to, in addition to the more standard prudential regulations.
Government control over banks has always had its fans, ranging from Lenin to Gerschenkron.
While there are those who have emphasized the political importance of public control over
banking, most arguments for nationalizing banks are based on the premise that profit maximizing
lenders do not necessarily deliver credit where the social returns are the highest. The Indian
government, when nationalizing all the larger Indian banks in 1969, argued that banking was
“inspired by a larger social purpose” and must “subserve national priorities and objectives such
as rapid growth in agriculture, small industry and exports.

Pages :57


Risky Sex, Addictions, and Communicable Diseases in India:
Implications for Health, Development, and Security

This monograph provides a comprehensive and unifying view of a number of health issues
confronting India and how, over time, they could impact the stability and security of the nation. New pandemics
like HIV/AIDS have confounded attempts at containment because their spread highlights vulnerabilities in
social and political norms and behaviors that have historically been ignored. Their spread also exposes a highly
inadequate medical and educational infrastructure. To stop the spread of communicable diseases for which risky
individual lifestyles and behaviors, societal norms and beliefs, poverty and lack of empowerment, and stigma
and discrimination are major factors it is necessary to examine the system as a whole and to develop new
paradigms and tools. Sexually transmitted infections and addictions to alcohol and drugs have emerged as a
major interconnected global threat. This monograph makes the case that India is highly vulnerable to this threat
and major policy changes, an unprecedented cooperation between public and private sector, and an order of
magnitude more investment in health and education is needed to prevent a runaway situation as has transpired
in much of Sub-Saharan Africa.

Pages :100



National Health System Profile

Although the National Health Policy (NHP) in India was not framed until 1983, India has
built up a vast health infrastructure and initiated several national health programmes over last
five decades in government, voluntary and private sectors under the guidance and direction of
various committees (Bore, Mudaliar, Kartar Singh, Srivastava), the Constitution, the
Planning Commission, the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare, and Consultative
Committees attached to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The period after 1983
witnessed several major developments in the polices impacting the health sector – adoption of
National Health Policy in 1983, 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in 1992, National
Nutrition Policy in 1993, National Health Policy in 2002, National Policy on Indian System
of Medicine and Homeopathy in 2002, Drug Policy in 2002, introduction of Universal Health
Insurance schemes for the poor in 2003, and inclusion of health in Common Minimum
Programme of the UPA Government in 2004…

Pages :48


Research and collaboration in the new geography of science

This report is part of a series launched by Thomson Reuters to inform policymakers about the changing landscape and dynamics of the global research base.
The previous Global Research Report
examined Brazil and its growing presence
on the world scientific stage. Here, we turn to another component nation in the so-called “BRIC” group: India, which, like Brazil and fellow BRIC members Russia and China, is building on its vast resources and potential in becoming a lead economic power. Underpinning the realization of that economic potential will be a significant expansion in its ability to generate and exploit its knowledge resources through research and the related skills of its workforce. The growth of knowledge and innovation capacity in the BRIC is already impacting on the global research system.

Pages : 12


India’s Pattern of Development:
What Happened, What Follows?

This Working Paper should not be reported as representing the views of the IMF.
The views expressed in this Working Paper are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent
those of the IMF or IMF policy. Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are
published to elicit comments and to further debate.

Pages : 70


School Participation in Rural India

This paper presents and analysis of the determinants of school participation in rural north
India, based on a recent household survey which includes detailed information on school
characteristics. School participation, especially among girls, responds to a wide range of
variables, including parental education and motivation, social background, dependency
ratios, work opportunities, village development, teacher postings, teacher regularity and midday
meals. The remarkable lead achieved by the state of Himachal Pradesh is fully
accounted for by these variables. School quality matters, but it is not related in a simple way
to specific inputs.

Pages : 43


India and the University of Cambridge
moving forward together

Cambridge education is shared by many students. We have
been welcoming Indian students for 150 years, with steadily
increasing numbers in recent times. More than 1,000 Indian
students have received financial support from Cambridge in
the last two decades.
Increasingly, boundaries at Cambridge exist to be crossed!
Interdisciplinary teaching and research flourish – from the
Centre for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities,
to Cambridge Neuroscience, launched this autumn, which
brings together over 500 academics from 30 departments…

Pages : 24


Labor Sociology Searching
for a Direction

This article explores the history of the labor movement in India and the parallel
development of labor sociology. It assesses the influence of Western models of
labor, stressing their weaknesses in diagnosing the peculiarity of the Indian situation.
Because of these models, and also because of the narrow concerns of trade
unions, until recently labor studies overlooked the overwhelming proportion of
the work force—namely, the informal workers. Despite all the hype about business
process outsourcing companies and call centers, it is this sector of the labor
force that has increased most rapidly during the past 15 years since the beginning
of market liberalization. Although sociological studies are catching up with the
transformation of the labor force, there still remain very few contacts between
scholars and labor unions or labor activists.

Pages : 19


India’s Engagement
with the African
Indian Ocean Rim

In recent years India has strengthened its involvement in the
African Indian Ocean Rim considerably. This shift in policy comes
in part because of India’s desire to compete with China’s growing
influence in the region. The Indian Ocean has immense
significance to India’s development. India’s strategy is deepening
not only commercially but due to concerns over its security and
hegemony in the region, which are underpinned by India’s 2004
maritime doctrine…

Pages : 16



This former duck-hunting reserve of the Maharajas is India’s major wintering area for large numbers of aquatic birds and one of India’s main birdwatching sites. Some 370 species of birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia, including the rare Siberian crane, have been recorded in the Park.

Pages : 7



This study was co-financed by and implemented under the continuing support of the
ILO Subregional Office for South Asia, New Delhi and the InFocus Programme on Skills,
Knowledge and Employability (IFP/SKILLS), ILO.
The Team Leader appreciated the important participation of Messrs. Q.L. Juneja,
Director Projects and Ashwani Aggarwal, Deputy Director, Training, DGE&T who
critically reviewed the design of this study as well as the instruments applied for the
collection of data. Mr. A. Aggarwal also wrote a brief on the training system of India for
this report. Both of them fully participated in the field study in the State of Orissa where
the concept and the instruments for this study were tested and finalized…

Pages : 103


The current liquidity crunch in India:
Diagnosis and policy response

This paper was written from 10 to 14 October under the aegis of the NIPFP-DEA
Research Program on Capital Flows and their Consequences. We are grateful to Josh
Felman and Kalpana Kochhar, and to participants in the seminar on 18 October 2008 at
NIPFP on these issues, for many ideas and improvements. This revision (of 20 October)
reflects the discussions of 18 October.

Pages : 25


India as a global power?

India is going through a series of remarkable transformations.
Economically, its growth rate has accelerated. Politically, an era of
single-party dominance has given way to a roughly two-party
system, but one where both national parties require large coalitions
to form a government. India’s security policy has been transformed
by its own needs and Pakistan’s nuclear tests of 1998, as well as by
major changes, both past and prospective, in Asian power relationships.
These transformations began in about 1980, when economic
growth started to accelerate, and were well in place by the time of
President Clinton’s signature visit to India in 2000.

Pages : 16


India :
HIV and AIDS-related
Discrimination, Stigmatization
and Denial

In India, as elsewhere, AIDS is perceived as a disease of “others” – of people
living on the margins of society, whose lifestyles are considered “perverted” and “sinful.”
Discrimination, stigmatization, and denial (DSD) are the expected outcomes of such
values, affecting life in families, communities, workplaces, schools, and health care settings.
Because of HIV/AIDS-related DSD, appropriate policies and models of good practice
remain undeveloped. People living with HIV and AIDS (PLHA) continue to be burdened
by poor care and inadequate services, while those with the power to help do little
to make the situation better…

Pages : 72


RECOUP Working Paper 14

Forgotten Youth: Disability and
Development in India

In 2001, it is estimated that 270 million Indians belonged in the 12-24 years age group. While
attention is being focused on these young people’s potential for social transformation, some of them –
such as those with disabilities – remain alienated from mainstream debates on development. It may be
estimated that there are somewhere between 5 and 5.5 million persons with disabilities in the 12-24
years age group, so they form a significant minority. Little is known about their experiences, however,
nor how they and the others around them make sense of their lives and perceive their transition to
adulthood as their surrounding milieu is transformed. In this paper I adapt the framework of transitions
proposed by the World Bank’s World Development Report 200 7 to examine opportunities for young
people with disabilities in the areas of learning, work and citizenship. I use existing literature to review
secondary data and to analyse the lived experiences of young people with disabilities. What are their
prospects in a time of optimism for Indian youth?

Pages : 25


The Brookings Foreign Policy Studies
Energy Security Series

Growth demands energy. It is no wonder that India—with an economy expected
to grow at over 5 percent a year for the next twenty-five years—has developed a
ravenous appetite for energy. India is the world’s fifth largest consumer of energy,
and by 2030 it is expected to become the third largest, overtaking Japan and Russia.

Pages : 98


India Entertainment

The India Entertainment circuit sends your release
to key entertainment media outlets all across India.
Full translation into Hindi is included. Distribution via
Asia Release and regional news agency India PR
is included. Can also be included as a trade category
to India News at no additional charge.

Pages : 19


INDIA 2039

Do we need yet another report on India? A valid question,
given that there is no dearth of reports on India.
Indeed, with the reports regularly produced by the plethora
of committees and blue ribbon panels, multinational
institutions, private financial institutions and think tanks,
there is no shortage of analysis or recommendations.

Pages : 64


Commodity Derivatives Market in India: Development,
Regulation and Future Prospects

Organized commodity derivatives in India started as early as 1875, barely about a
decade after they started in Chicago. However, many feared that derivatives fuelled
unnecessary speculation and were detrimental to the healthy functioning of the markets for
the underlying commodities. As a result, after independence, commodity options trading
and cash settlement of commodity futures were banned in 1952. A further blow came in
1960s when, following several years of severe draughts that forced many farmers to default
on forward contracts (and even caused some suicides), forward trading was banned in
many commodities considered primary or essential. Consequently, the commodities
derivative markets dismantled and remained dormant for about four decades until the new
millennium when the Government, in a complete change in policy, started actively
encouraging the commodity derivatives market…

Pages : 10



In spite of the growing concern about reproductive health, information on levels, trends and
differentials in maternal mortality remains fragmentary in most developing countries. Policy
initiatives often rest on judgements made on the basis of a small, selective cross-section of the
population. For India, the National Family Health Survey of 1992-93 was the first to provide a
national-level estimate of 437 maternal deaths per 100,000 births for the two-year period
preceding the survey (International Institute for Population Sciences, 1995). But in spite of
surveying nearly 90,000 households, it could not produce estimates at regional or state-levels
owing to the smallness of the sample. Even at the national level, the sample inadequacies of the
NFHS came into sharp focus when the second round of the survey in 1998-99 produced a
maternal mortality estimate of 520, but failed to confirm statistically the possible rise in the
level of maternal mortality (International Institute for Population Sciences and ORC-Macro,

Pages : 15


Is India, or Will It Be, a Responsible International Stakeholder?

It has become a cliché that the key strategic challenges facing Washington and the wider international community, such as energy, water, terrorism, economic development, and nonproliferation, cannot be solved by the United States alone. Although the United States unarguably retains its post–Cold War preeminent position, events since the September 11 attacks have shown the limitations of Washington’s hard and soft power…

Pages : 14


Capital flows to India

In most of the period since the mid-1990s, external sector developments in India have been
marked by strong capital flows. Capital inflows, which were earlier mainly confined to smallscale
official concessional finance, gained momentum from the 1990s after the initiation of
economic reforms…

Pages : 29


The Digital Library of India Project:
Process, Policies and Architecture

In this paper we share the experience gained from establishing a process and a
supporting architecture for the Digital Library of India (DLI) project. The DLI project was
started with a vision of digitizing books and making them available online, in a searchable and
browseable form. The digitization of the books takes place at geographically distributed

Pages : 9


Bollywood – Maharashtra and India’s Film Cluster

India is a rising star with many different faces: the biggest democracy in the world; a nuclear
power; the second most populous country after China; one of the poorest countries of the world;
and the new destination for venture capital and technology companies. As the world’s 12th largest
economy with a GDP of about $1 trillion (US State Department, 2007) India has gained a
strong voice in the international agenda and attracts investors and governments looking to establish
alliances with her…

Pages : 34


India: Biotechnology Research and Development

Biotechnology has transformed many parts
of the chemical industry, agriculture, and
medicine. This area of science has little demarcation
between basic and applied research,
and new discoveries and innovations, in most

Pages : 7


India Potential Market for US Softwoods?

This report is designed to give an overview of India’s market for softwoods and to explore the prospects for exports of American softwood products. It is intended to be the first phase of an in-depth market study, which will lead to the formation of a promotional strategy by AF&PA.
The report is based on desk research conducted during the latter part of 2004 and early part of 2005 and field research conducted during January 2005.

Pages : 17


Carbon Disclosure Project Report 2008 India 200

Climate Change has emerged as an important issue on the business agenda with
increasing responsibility being placed on companies to contribute to finding solutions to
this urgent problem. An increasing number of companies are investing in environmental
initiatives because it makes good business sense. There is also mounting pressure from
customers for businesses to communicate their response towards managing climate risks…

Pages : 81



World Longwall mining is moving towards
increased face dimensions, least cost per tonne,
higher productivity and lesser face transfer periods
producing 1 to 4 MT of coal per annum,per face.
- India is the 3rd largest coal producer in the world
and 8th largest importer of coal…

Pages : 24


China, India, Brazil and South Africa in the World Economy

This paper attempts to analyse the economic implications of the rise of China, India,
Brazil and South Africa, for developing countries situated in the wider context of the
world economy. It examines the possible impact of their rapid growth on industrialized
countries and developing countries…

Pages : 30


Destination South India

Like a giant wedge plunging into the Indian Ocean, peninsular South India is
the steamy Hindu heartland of the subcontinent, and an infinitely different
place from the landlocked mountains and sun-baked deserts of the north…

Pages : 18




  • Launch meeting in Mumbai in December


  • 20 top CEOs
  • Steering Committee of CEOs in 2001
  • Informal Networks in New Delhi &

Mumbai – September 2001

  • About 100 companies enrolled for Global


Pages : 19



The information used in this study is based on both publicly accessible sources of information (publications, specialist articles, internet sites, conference papers etc.) and non-public papers (for example internal reports from promoting institutions), as well as personal interviews with experts…

Pages : 93


A Profile of Youth in India

This report uses data from the 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) to provide a
profile of youth in India—who they are, what they know, what they think, how they behave,
and what their health and nutritional status is—that is relevant for population, health, and
nutrition programmes and for policy makers…

Pages : 104


Aging in India: Its Socioeconomic
and Health

The sharp decline in mortality since 1950 and a steady recent decline
in fertility has contributed to the process of population aging in India.
India currently ranks fourth among the countries of the world with
a large elderly population; by the year 2000, it is likely to be second only to

Pages : 16



There have been major changes in tax systems in several countries over
the last two decades for a variety of reasons. The objective of this paper is
to analyse the evolution of the tax system in India since the early 1990s…

Pages : 16


E-government in India: Opportunities and challenges

Public administration, governed by bureaucratic structures built on rationale principles, that
dominated the twentieth century, has failed to respond to the changing requirements of the
present times. E-governance…

Pages : 10


The State of India’s

The State of India’s Indigenous and Tribal Peoples 2009 covering the events of 2008
is the third issue of the series. Reporting on the human rights situation of over
84.2 million Scheduled Tribes of India is a challenging task. The report covers
wide range of issues such as violations of the rights of the indigenous peoples
by the security forces and the non-tribals…

Pages : 78


Federalism: Lessons from India

India became independent in 1947. Its parliament, also serving as a Constituent Assembly
(CA), drafted the new constitution that came into effect on January 26, 1950, establishing the
federal union of India…

Pages : 13


Situations of Religion Freedom in India

Dear respected participants of this important consultation, the organizers and the most respected
dignitaries on the dais and my dear friends, I bring greetings to you from India…

Pages : 6


Muslim Women in India

This Report has been commissioned and is published by
MRG as a contribution to public understanding of the
issue which forms its subject. The text and views of the
author do not necessarily represent, in every detail and in
all its aspects, the collective view of MRG.

Pages : 43


Thomas Patrick Hughes, Missionary to British India: The Class Ceiling

The great ridge of the Hindu Kush in its full panorama stands out clear against
the sky. But little is now remembered of the story these mountains could tell. …
they have been seen and crossed at intervals since the dawn of history by famous
men of many nations…

Pages : 19


Starting your career in India Country Guide for International Students

Country profi le

The Republic of India has a prospering free market economy. Continuous growth since India
gained independence in 1947, fostered particularly by the economic reforms and liberalisation
during the 1990s, has enabled the country to double its average income within only a decade.

Pages : 10



The Semester at Sea Field Program has a strong academic component. Faculty members develop field
requirements that constitute 20% of the contact hours for each course they are teaching. As part of these field
requirements, all Semester at Sea faculty design and lead field trips that integrate with their course work.
The following is a representative sampling of the types of Faculty-Directed Practica (FDPs) that may be
offered during this voyage?

Pages ?8



The project “Strengthening the Handmade Paper Industry in India”, DP/IND/90/037, was
approved in 1990. The project budget at the time of approval was US$ 686,800 and the present budget
(as of 31 March 1997) is US $ 704,999. The project implementation commenced in September 1991…

Pages : 41



Mahatma Gandhi arrived at the pandal and was accorded a warm welcome. In
compliance with the request of the president and the audience, the Mahatma spoke
most feelingly for about 10 minutes…

Pages : 473


The India Case

Over the past decade, India has quietly become a significant provider of development
assistance to other less developed countries. In fact, current trends suggest that the country
could become a net exporter of development assistance sometime in the next five years…

Pages : 18


Creating seamless digital maps from Survey of India topographic sheets

It is possible to create seamless digital maps from Survey of India topographic sheets, by separately
georeferencing each N-S strip of sheets which share the same projection to a separate metric grid, backprojecting
from the separate metric grids to geographic coordinates on the Everest 1956 elipsoid…

Pages : 10


India Vision 2020

Every country needs a vision statement which stirs the imagination and motivates all segments of
society to greater effort. It is an essential step in building a political consensus on a broad national development
strategy, which encompasses, inter-alia, the roles and responsibilities of different agents in the

Pages : 108


Farmers’ Suicide in India:
Agrarian Crisis, Path of
Development and Politics
in Karnataka

This paper examines the causes of farmers’ suicide in Karnataka from different
perspectives and analyses how the capitalist path of development through
globalisation is the major factor responsible for the sharpening agrarian crisis in

Pages : 32


Rural India
Different Meaning to
Different People

Most of the rural India is yet to accept the idea of an inclusive India.
Rural India presents a baffling dichotomy of images: poverty and growing
potential of rural markets.

Pages : 23


The Annuity Market in India: Do Consumers Get Their Money’s Worth?
What are the Key Public Policy Issues?

Annuities markets around the world are small but are likely to grow further as a result of reforms in
the public social security systems and private pensions plans, which partially replace the defined benefit
plans with funded defined contribution plans.

Pages : 36



In recognition of the important role of Foreign Direct Investment(FDI)
in the accelerated economic growth of the country, Government of India
initiated a slew of economic and financial reforms in 1991.

Pages : 66


India and the University of Cambridge
moving forward together

Cambridge education is shared by many students. We have
been welcoming Indian students for 150 years, with steadily
increasing numbers in recent times.

Pages : 24


The EU-India
Free Trade Agreement
Gender and social justice concerns

In April 2007, the European Commission (EC) Directorates-General (DG) for Trade received a
negotiating mandate from the Council of Ministers to launch bi-lateral negotiations on a far-reaching and
ambitious Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with India, following their common declaration of a Strategic
Partnership in 2004.

Pages : 14

human development reports

India of 1999 projects a picture of confusion and contrasts – from too many contending forces,
not the least of which are opinions representing polar opposites – within and outside the

Pages : 135


India as a New Global Leader

This publication is the first in the Foreign Policy Centre’s ‘India and
Globalisation’ programme, launched on 3 February 2005 by P.
Chidambaram, the Minster of Finance for the Indian government.

Pages : 100


Ten Things for India to Achieve
its 2050 Potential

In recent years, we have published a number of papers pointing to remarkably
positive potential growth for India up to 20501. Having the potential and actually
achieving it are two separate things. In this paper, we outline ten crucial steps
that we believe India must take in order to achieve its full potential. In our latest
annual update to our Growth Environment Scores (GES)…

Pages : 24


Trade and Investment
Opportunities with

How the UK reacts to globalisation is one of the most important issues facing the UK
Government. To know how to react, it is necessary first to understand the real nature of the
challenge. The decision to undertake an inquiry into India was born of an often-expressed
concern that the UK is making less of its opportunities than our global competitors.
Representatives of both the Indian Government and the UK and Indian private sectors
expressed their concerns that our unique relationship with India should be generating a
much higher level of trade and investment than was actually the case…

Pages : 70


Poverty and Inequality in India
A Re-Examination

This paper presents a new set of integrated poverty and inequality estimates for India
and Indian states for 1987-88, 1993-94 and 1999-2000. The poverty estimates are broadly
consistent with independent evidence on per capita expenditure, state domestic product
and real agricultural wages…

Pages : 20


Improving Literacy in Rural India:
Cellphone Games in an After-School Program

Literacy is one of the great challenges in the
developing world. But universal education is an unattainable
dream for those children who lack access to quality educational
resources such as well-prepared teachers and schools…

Pages : 11



This series is produced by the Health, Nutrition, and Population Family (HNP) of the World Bank’s
Human Development Network (HNP Discussion Paper). The papers in this series aim to provide a
vehicle for publishing preliminary and unpolished results on HNP topics to encourage discussion and

Pages : 284


India’s Population Reality:
Reconciling Change and Tradition

India is often described as a collection of many countries
held together by a common destiny and a successful
democracy. Its diverse ethnic, linguistic, geographic,

Pages : 24


India’s Attitude towards China’s Growing
Influence in Central Asia

The strategic location, energy resources, competition for pipeline routes
and the sheer number of regional and global players, were sufficient
reasons for many analysts to create theories of the “New Great Game” in
Central Asia…

Pages : 12


India :HIV and AIDS-related Discrimination,Stigmatization and Denial

In India, as elsewhere, AIDS is perceived as a disease of “others” – of people
living on the margins of society, whose lifestyles are considered “perverted” and “sinful.”
Discrimination, stigmatization, and denial (DSD) are the expected outcomes of such

Pages : 72



There have been major changes in tax systems in several countries over
the last two decades for a variety of reasons. The objective of this paper is
to analyse the evolution of the tax system in India since the early 1990s.
The paper describes and assesses the introduction of new forms of direct
and indirect taxes, their revenue and equity implications and the successes
achieved in their implementation. The paper concludes that after eight
years of reform improving the tax system remains a major challenge in

Pages : 16


India: 2009 Article IV Consultation—Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information
Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for India

The staff report for the 2009 Article IV consultation, prepared by a staff team of the IMF,
following discussions that ended on December 19, 2009, with the officials of India on
economic developments and policies. Based on information available at the time of these
discussions, the staff report was completed on January 11, 2010. The views expressed in the
staff report are those of the staff team and do not necessarily reflect the views of the
Executive Board of the IMF.s…

Pages : 74



The obstacles to a good education faced by millions of children in South Asia are daunting
enough. For the 10% of the region’s young people who are estimated to have some kind of
disability, the barriers are compounded. The UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia has looked at
examples in India, Nepal, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka of how such children are given
schooling, and whether this is the type of education they have the right to expect. The result is a
very mixed bag indeed.

Pages : 55



This report provides a summary of the AML/CFT measures in place in India as at
the date of the on-site visit or immediately thereafter. It describes and analyses those
measures, and provides recommendations on how certain aspects of the system could be
strengthened (see Table 2). It also sets out India’s levels of compliance with the FATF
40+9 Recommendations (see Table 1).

Pages : 112



In the space of less than a decade, the burgeoning movement for the right to
information in India has significantly sought to expand democratic space, and empower the
ordinary citizen to exercise far greater control over the corrupt and arbitrary exercise of state

Pages : 46


India’s Space Ambitions: Headed Toward Space War?

In March of last year, Indian President A.P.J. Kalam addressed the Indian Air Force
(IAF) president’s fleet review with bold goals for India’s aerospace future. “I visualize
the Indian Air Force of 2025 to be based on our scientific and technological competence
in the development of communications satellites…

Pages : 17


Situation Analysis
of Rural Road Maintenance
in Madhya Pradesh

The ILO would first like to express its gratitude to the Ministry of Rural
Development, Government of India and the Rural Development Department,
Government of Madhya Pradesh for their support and cooperation in
undertaking the study of maintenance of rural roads in Madhya Pradesh.

Pages : 135


International Congress of
Hyderabad, India
August 19–27, 2010

The Executive Organizing Committee of the International
Congress ofMathematicians, onbehalf of the International
Mathematical Union, extends an open invitation to attend
the Congress being held in Hyderabad, India, during the
period 19th to 27th August, 2010.

Pages : 16


Technical Assistance to the
Government of India for Urban
Health Planning and National

Several people have contributed to developing and enriching EHP/India’s technical assistance
efforts to the Government of India in the area of urban health. We are grateful to Mr. P.K.
Hota, Secretary of Family Welfare, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of
India, who provided critical directions to these efforts. The Ministry’s commitment to
providing an environment in which states could enhance their own capacities and optimally
access funds for Urban Health Projects was reflected constantly in all the technical assistance

Pages : 98


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